GLOSSARY TERMS

Lipoprotein lipase

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Lipoprotein lipase is a water soluble enzyme that is made in fatty tissue and muscle. It helps carry fat from your bloodstream to your muscles to be used as fuel.

Tapioca

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Tapioca is a starch extracted from the Cassava plant (it is known by many other names around the world). It is widely used as a source of food in many regions of the world. It is often added as a thickening agent to food preparation and it's a source of carbohydrate in sports nutrition. It is considered gluten free.

Natural flavor

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Natural flavors can come from a wide array of natural chemicals (plant, animal etc.) as opposed to artificial (human made) chemicals. So, a natural flavor differs from an artificial flavor in the source (origin) of the chemicals used.

Erythritol

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Erythritol is a non-artificial sugar alcohol (hydrogenated carbohydrate). It is naturally occurring in some fruits and fermented foods. As a food additive, it is generally derived from the natural process of fermentation of sugars and starches. Like other sugar alcohol, it is typically used to replace sugar since it’s practically calorie free (it has 0.02 calories/gram) but yet has about 70% of sugar’s sweetness.

Sugar

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Sugars are simple carbohydrates which are made of either simple sugars (monosaccharides) or disaccharides (2 joined monosaccharides). They are generally sweet and a quick source of energy. As a result, they are common in sports drinks, bars, gels, and chews to name a few. They are also typically combined with more complex carbohydrates (like starch) to provide athletes with carbohydrates that convert to usable energy at different speeds (digest at different rates).

Creatine

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Creatine is a naturally occurring substance (organic acid) that helps provide energy to all the body’s cells. For athletes, it is important because it helps make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in muscles. Although creatine is a nonessential nutrient (it is synthesize from amino acids so you don’t need to get it directly from your diet), athletes often supplement with creatine to increase muscle mass and strength.

Glutamine

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Glutamine is a conditionally essential proteinogenic (protein building) amino acid. Under normal conditions, it is considered nonessential because it can be synthesized (made) from other substances (synthesized from the amino acid glutamate by the enzyme gluatamine synthetase). However, during intense training, illness, or injury, it can become conditionally essential (meaning you need to get it from your diet or supplements). This is why athletes often supplement with glutamine to help maintain muscle health.

Citric Acid

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Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is primarily used to add a sour taste to foods. It is also a natural preservative so is widely added to foods and sports nutrition.

Maltodextrin

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Maltodextrin is a complex carbohydrate derived from starch. It's made up of D-glucose units joined together. It is easily digested and absorbed so is popular in sports drinks and gels for example. It's usually derived from corn in the US and wheat in Europe but can be derived from any starch. The maltodextrin D-glucose chain typically are 3 to 7 units long. The shorter the chain, the sweeter.

Arginine

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Arginine (L-Arginine) is an amino acid. It is one of the protein building amino acids in the human body. It is considered a semi-essential amino acid which means that, although the body can make it (does not need to come from the diet), the body often doesn't synthesis enough so getting it from the diet can have benefits especially for athletes.


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